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Review Sheet for GS II Exam # 2

Topic I- The Mongols

            A. Geographical features

            B. Genghis Khan: traits that made him an effective leader, how the Mongols under his rule were able to conquer so much territory

            C. Kublai Khan in China: How did he rule?, According to the New York Times editorial, what could the Bush Administration learn from the Mongols

Topic II- The European Middle Ages

            A. European Feudalism: Why did feudalism develop?, What obligations did lords and vassals have to each other?, Serfdom,  How are Japanese and European feudalism similar and different?

            B. The High Middle Ages: Why did towns start to develop?, What is meant by the middle class (burghers, bourgeoisie), How did guilds control the economic activity in towns?  What is a town charter?

            C. The Catholic Church:  Basic role, How did the Church acquire a monopoly over salvation (sacraments, heretics, excommunication, the interdict)?, Popular Religion (Saints and relics)

            D. The Troubadours and courtly love: The Story of Tristan and Isolda, why did Joseph Campbell say the the Troubadours created a "new way of experiencing love"?

            E. The Crusades:  Why did Pope Urban II call for them?, Why did knights go to fight?, What was the role of merchants during the Crusades?, Were the Crusades successful?, How did the Crusades impact Europe?

            F. Jews in the Middle Ages:  Their role in towns and trade, anti-Semitism (ritual murder and blood libel)

Topic III- The Origin of Nations

            A. What factors contributed to the growth of England and France as nation-states during the 1300's?

            B. the Evolution of Parliamentary government (the Model Parliament, the Estates General)

            C. The Magna Carta

            D. Church Crises in the 1300's: the Babylonian Captivity, the Great Schism, the Council of Constance, Religious Revolts (John Wycliff and John Huss), Impact of 

            E. the Plague: impact in Europe, Aids as the modern plague

            F. The Hundred Years War and Nationalism: What is nationalism, How did the Hundred Years War help to undermine feudalism?, Joan of Arc and nationalism

            G. The New Monarchs: How did they differ from feudal kings?, Case studies: France and Louis XI, England and Henry VII, Spain and Ferdinand and Isabella, the Holy Roman Emperor and Charles the V- How did they strengthen their respective nations?